Technical notes: Prevalence of chronic HCV (RNA+/cAg)

Technical notes: Prevalence of chronic HCV (RNA+/cAg)


Description on indicator: Prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (RNA+/cAg) among the general population.. 




All country dashboards show show Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) modelled estimates for chronic hepatitis C prevalence for 1990-2019.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Global Burden of Disease Project, 2019. Available at:

Many countries also have modelled estimates from the Polaris Observatory: Polaris Observatory HCV Collaborators. Global prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus infection in 2015: a modelling study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Mar;2(3):161-176. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30181-9. Epub 2016 Dec 16. PMID: 28404132.

Country estimates from Gower et al, 2014 were considered  "modelled" where adjustments were made to capture only the adult population and/or HCV infection in 2013 included. Countries included: Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Cameroon, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Pakistan, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Tunisia, United Kingdom and Yemen.


Major sources included:

  • European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Systematic review on hepatitis B and C prevalence in the EU/EEA.  Stockholm: ECDC; 2016.

Only estimates with a risk of bias risk of bias score ≥4 or pooled estimates were included. Pooled estimates were considered "Modelled" estimates.

  • European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Monitoring the responses to hepatitis B and C epidemics in EU/EEA member states, 2019. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020. Studies from 2016-2017 (the most recent ones included) were used from this report as earlier studies were included in the 2016 systematic review. Reference links were not included in this report, so all reported estimates are linked back to the main report.
  • Gower E, Estes C, Blach S, Razavi-Shearer K, Razavi H. Global epidemiology and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol. 2014 Nov;61(1 Suppl):S45-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2014.07.027. Epub 2014 Jul 30. PMID: 25086286.