Technical notes: HCV-related death rate
All country data dashboards show the estimated HCV death rate from the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation.
Description of indicator: Estimated HCV-related death rate per 100,000 population for all ages, both sexes in 2017. HCV-related deaths include deaths due to acute HCV, cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases attributable to HCV, and liver cancer attributable to HCV.
Source: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Global Burden of Disease Project, 2017.
This data can be accessed at: http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool. Input data sources to the Global Burden of Disease project can be accessed here: http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-2017/data-input-sources.
Select countries may have a second reported death rate that is sourced from published national data sources. In the case of two death rates, the one from national data sources can be identified by information in the indicator title on the dashboard. For example, on the United States page, the HCV-death rate title reads:” per 100,000 HCV-related deaths 2016, National Vital Registry, US CDC.” These death rates are generally based on death records or other national surveillance systems.
This survey/reported data was either provided by local program managers or was identified by CGHE staff through a web-based search. CGHE would be happy to add nationally sourced death rates for additional countries. Please contact: to share any data.
Survey/reported data sources include:
Centers for Disease Control. Viral Hepatitis Surveillance United States, 2016. Available at : https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/statistics/2016surveillance/pdfs/2016HepSurveillanceRpt.pdf
Comparing modelled and survey/reported data
In some cases, the death rates shown from IHME and the one reported by the country may be different. These differences could be due to differences in methodology.
The IHME death-rate is an estimated value that incorporates methods to adjust for incomplete or missing vital registration (VR) and verbal autopsy (VA) data, general heterogeneity in data completeness and quality, and the redistribution of unclassifiable death codes. More information on this approach is available in the annex of the GBD 2017 mortality estimation paper: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(18)32203-7/fulltext (GBD Cause of Death 2017 Collaborators. Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017).
Country-reported data may follow other guidelines. For example, the US-reported number adjusted for under-ascertainment and under-reporting based on methods described in this paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24432918 (Klevens RM et al. Estimating acute viral hepatitis infections from nationally reported cases. Am J Public Health. 2014 Mar;104(3):482-7).
For population denominators, GBD 2017 independently estimated population size and fertility rate for all locations. The nationally reported death rate was likely based on government standard reporting protocols. The death-rate for the US was computed by applying age-specific death rates to the U.S. standard population (relative age distribution of year 2000 (census) with population projections) (Centers for Disease Control. Viral Hepatitis Surveillance United States, 2016. Available at : https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/statistics/2016surveillance/pdfs/2016HepSurveillanceRpt.pdf