Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immune deficiency virus seroconversion positivity rates and their potential risk factors among patients on maintenance hemodialysis in cameroon
Number new diagnoses
Laboratory-based antibody test
Introduction. Maintenance hemodialysis is a high-risk environment for transmission of blood-borne viruses. We aimed to assess the seroconversion rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infections in patients on maintenance hemodialysis in a tertiary care hospital in Cameroon. Materials and Methods. Patients with serology records at initiation of hemodialysis, and a minimum duration on hemodialysis of 4 months were included. Baseline demographic and clinical data were recorded. Patients were tested with a third and fourth generation immune-enzymatic assay for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HCV antibodies, respectively. For HIV, a rapid Ag/Ab combo test and an ImmunoComb II HIV (for confirmation) were used. Results. Ninety-seven patients, 66% men, mean age of 51 +/- 14 years and mean duration on hemodialysis of 32.8 +/- 27.5 months, were included. Seroprevalence at dialysis initiation was 6.2%, 20.6%, and 9.3%, respectively, for HBV, HCV, and HIV. Ninety patients (92.8%) received blood transfusions while on hemodialysis. Seroconversion rates were 1.1% for hepatitis B surface antigen, 11.8%, for anti-HCV antibodies, and 0.0% for HIV. Longer duration on dialysis was associated with HCV seroconversion (62.7 months versus 29.2 months, P <.001). Conclusions. Seroconversion rate in hemodialysis was high for HCV, low for HBV, and nil for HIV. Longer duration on dialysis was associated with HCV seroconversion. Our study suggests an urgent need to lay emphasis on universal precaution measures in order to reduce the risk of hepatitis seroconversion in the unit. Copyright © 2016, Iranian Society of Nephrology. All rights reserved.