Bundling Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Testing to Increase Receipt of Test Results: A Randomized Trial
Receipt of antibody results,Number new diagnoses,Linkage to care,Diagnostic test accuracy information
Laboratory-based antibody test,Point-of-care antibody test (rapid test)
BACKGROUND: The overlapping human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics disproportionately affect people with substance use disorders. However, many people who use substances remain unaware of their infection(s). OBJECTIVE(S): The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of an on-site bundled rapid HIV and HCV testing strategy in increasing receipt of both HIV and HCV test results. RESEARCH DESIGN: Two-armed randomized controlled trial in substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDTP) in New York City. Participants in the treatment arm were offered bundled rapid HIV and HCV tests with immediate results on-site. Participants in the control arm were offered the standard of care, that is, referrals to on-site or off-site laboratory-based HIV and HCV testing with delayed results. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 162 clients with unknown or negative HIV and HCV status. MEASURES: The primary outcome was the percentage of participants with self-reported receipt of HIV and HCV test results at 1-month postrandomization. RESULT(S): Over half of participants were Hispanic (51.2%), with 25.3% being non-Hispanic black and 17.9% non-Hispanic white. Two thirds were male, and 54.9% reported injection as method of drug use. One hundred thirty-four participants (82.7%) completed the 1-month assessment. Participants in the treatment arm were more likely to report having received both test results than those in the control arm (69% vs. 19%, P<0.001). Seven participants in the treatment arm received a preliminary new HCV diagnosis, versus 1 in the control arm (P=0.029). CONCLUSION(S): Offering bundled rapid HIV and HCV testing with immediate results on-site in SUDTPs may increase awareness of HIV and HCV infection among people with substance use disorders.