Rwanda

Rwanda

Hepatitis B

Download HBV data

Prevalence of chronic HBV (HBsAg+)

10-64 year olds
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Value (%) Year Type Source
1.6 (1.10 - 2.20) 2019 Survey/reported Rwanda Population-based HIV Impact Assessment
15-64 year olds
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Value (%) Year Type Source
2 (1.40 - 2.70) 2019 Survey/reported Rwanda Population-based HIV Impact Assessment
National
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Value (%) Year Type Source
4.52 (2.50 - 7.74) 2015 Modelled WHO
3.4 (2.20 - 4.30) 2016 Modelled Razavi-Shearer et al, 2018
6.67 (3.82 - 11.37) 2013 Modelled Schweitzer et al, 2015
3.9 (3.83 - 3.97) 2018 Survey/reported Makuza et al, 2019
3.8 (3.07 - 4.54) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2020)
4.17 (3.35 - 4.94) 2018 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4.21 (3.39 - 5.02) 2017 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4.47 (3.61 - 5.37) 2016 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4.72 (3.85 - 5.77) 2015 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4.77 (3.87 - 5.82) 2014 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4.9 (3.97 - 5.95) 2013 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.07 (4.08 - 6.15) 2012 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.23 (4.18 - 6.35) 2011 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.36 (4.25 - 6.51) 2010 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.53 (4.41 - 6.71) 2009 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.8 (4.67 - 7.06) 2008 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6.1 (4.98 - 7.42) 2007 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6.37 (5.22 - 7.79) 2006 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6.53 (5.32 - 8.06) 2005 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6.65 (5.39 - 8.16) 2004 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6.83 (5.51 - 8.37) 2003 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7.01 (5.62 - 8.62) 2002 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7.16 (5.66 - 8.82) 2001 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7.21 (5.65 - 9) 2000 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7.2 (5.67 - 8.81) 1999 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7.18 (5.69 - 8.64) 1998 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7.16 (5.74 - 8.57) 1997 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7.13 (5.73 - 8.45) 1996 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7.12 (5.73 - 8.46) 1995 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7.12 (5.76 - 8.43) 1994 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7.13 (5.77 - 8.46) 1993 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7.12 (5.73 - 8.50) 1992 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7.11 (5.67 - 8.60) 1991 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7.1 (5.61 - 8.68) 1990 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4.05 (3.27 - 4.85) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
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Children under-5 years
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Value (%) Year Type Source
1.74 (0.86 - 3.30) 2015 Modelled WHO
0.35 (0.26 - 0.47) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2020)
0.42 (0.30 - 0.56) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
0.45 (0.33 - 0.59) 2018 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
0.47 (0.35 - 0.62) 2017 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
0.48 (0.36 - 0.63) 2016 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
0.49 (0.36 - 0.64) 2015 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
0.51 (0.37 - 0.66) 2014 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
0.54 (0.40 - 0.70) 2013 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
0.59 (0.44 - 0.76) 2012 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
0.65 (0.48 - 0.84) 2011 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
0.72 (0.53 - 0.94) 2010 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
0.83 (0.61 - 1.07) 2009 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
0.99 (0.72 - 1.28) 2008 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.2 (0.88 - 1.57) 2007 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.46 (1.05 - 1.91) 2006 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.77 (1.28 - 2.34) 2005 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.4 (1.73 - 3.15) 2004 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3.4 (2.48 - 4.48) 2003 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4.48 (3.26 - 5.91) 2002 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.35 (3.88 - 7.07) 2001 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.72 (4.14 - 7.62) 2000 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.72 (4.20 - 7.58) 1999 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.71 (4.22 - 7.53) 1998 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.69 (4.19 - 7.54) 1997 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.66 (4.19 - 7.51) 1996 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.65 (4.16 - 7.60) 1995 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.65 (4.20 - 7.50) 1994 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.66 (4.23 - 7.52) 1993 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.66 (4.24 - 7.49) 1992 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.64 (4.22 - 7.40) 1991 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.64 (4.20 - 7.33) 1990 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
0.49 (0.41 - 0.60) 2020 Modelled WHO
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People living with HIV (PLHIV)
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Value (%) Year Type Source
4.3 (4.20 - 4.40) 2016 Survey/reported Umutesi J et al, 2017
3.6 (2.30 - 4.80) 2019 Survey/reported Rwanda Population-based HIV Impact Assessment
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Technical notes

Number of people living with chronic HBV

National
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Value Year Type Source
400,000 (268,000 - 514,000) 2016 Modelled Razavi-Shearer et al, 2018
482,389 (389,270 - 576,217) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2020)
494,295 (400,112 - 590,743) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
497,215 (402,499 - 590,003) 2018 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
492,074 (395,285 - 587,097) 2017 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
510,963 (413,714 - 611,355) 2016 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
527,798 (429,830 - 643,014) 2015 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
522,506 (424,582 - 634,960) 2014 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
527,995 (427,322 - 640,042) 2013 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
535,067 (429,514 - 648,621) 2012 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
538,870 (428,265 - 654,078) 2011 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
537,773 (426,359 - 652,660) 2010 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
540,682 (430,820 - 657,745) 2009 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
554,172 (446,220 - 675,217) 2008 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
570,892 (466,252 - 694,210) 2007 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
581,995 (477,423 - 712,181) 2006 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
581,469 (473,335 - 718,222) 2005 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
578,655 (470,172 - 711,050) 2004 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
581,272 (468,940 - 713,527) 2003 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
583,366 (467,966 - 717,456) 2002 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
581,740 (459,764 - 717,406) 2001 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
573,070 (448,762 - 715,278) 2000 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
560,107 (441,417 - 685,601) 1999 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
549,460 (435,606 - 661,162) 1998 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
535,968 (428,948 - 642,132) 1997 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
489,495 (393,595 - 580,438) 1996 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
419,644 (337,851 - 499,033) 1995 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
373,321 (301,653 - 441,398) 1994 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
387,878 (313,466 - 459,865) 1993 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
473,406 (379,947 - 564,413) 1992 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
516,703 (410,712 - 624,666) 1991 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
500,622 (395,453 - 614,003) 1990 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
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HBV-related death rate

National
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Value (per 100,000) Year Type Source
1.03 2019 Survey/reported Rwanda Biomedical Center (RBC) MCCOD Database
2.71 (1.85 - 3.78) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2020)
5.96 (4 - 8.30) 1990 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6.03 (3.99 - 8.41) 1991 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6.37 (4.16 - 9.03) 1994 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6.14 (3.98 - 8.59) 1992 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6.32 (4.09 - 8.93) 1993 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6.2 (3.95 - 8.92) 1995 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6.11 (3.89 - 8.80) 1996 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6.03 (3.86 - 8.64) 1997 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.97 (3.93 - 8.62) 1998 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.74 (3.86 - 8.28) 1999 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.42 (3.73 - 7.82) 2000 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5.07 (3.56 - 7.18) 2001 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4.8 (3.38 - 6.71) 2002 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4.57 (3.21 - 6.33) 2003 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4.39 (3.12 - 6.09) 2004 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4.19 (3 - 5.73) 2005 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3.99 (2.87 - 5.41) 2006 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3.84 (2.76 - 5.23) 2007 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3.73 (2.66 - 5.06) 2008 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3.61 (2.55 - 4.96) 2009 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3.56 (2.50 - 4.98) 2010 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3.45 (2.41 - 4.78) 2011 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.8 (1.95 - 3.91) 2014 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.99 (2.08 - 4.21) 2013 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3.25 (2.26 - 4.51) 2012 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.73 (1.88 - 3.80) 2015 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.76 (1.90 - 3.84) 2016 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.8 (1.95 - 3.91) 2017 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.79 (1.92 - 3.95) 2018 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.71 (1.85 - 3.78) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
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Technical notes

HBV-related deaths

National
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Value Year Type Source
696 2016 Modelled WHO
134 2019 Survey/reported Rwanda Population-based HIV Impact Assessment
427 (287 - 596) 1990 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
446 (295 - 622) 1991 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
339 (222 - 481) 1994 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
349 (226 - 493) 1993 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
415 (269 - 581) 1992 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
372 (237 - 534) 1995 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
426 (271 - 614) 1996 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
459 (294 - 658) 1997 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
464 (306 - 670) 1998 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
438 (301 - 632) 2000 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
454 (305 - 655) 1999 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
407 (286 - 568) 2002 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
419 (294 - 594) 2001 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
397 (279 - 550) 2003 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
390 (277 - 541) 2004 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
381 (273 - 522) 2005 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
373 (268 - 505) 2006 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
368 (264 - 501) 2007 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
365 (261 - 496) 2008 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
363 (257 - 498) 2009 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
367 (258 - 514) 2010 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
366 (256 - 507) 2011 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
354 (246 - 491) 2012 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
333 (232 - 468) 2013 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
317 (221 - 443) 2014 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
317 (218 - 440) 2015 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
328 (226 - 456) 2016 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
340 (236 - 475) 2017 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
346 (238 - 490) 2018 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
343 (235 - 480) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
343 (235 - 480) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2020)
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Technical notes

Percent of liver cancer deaths attributable to HBV

National
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Value (%) Year Type Source
4 (3 - 6) 1990 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4 (3 - 6) 1991 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4 (3 - 6) 1992 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4 (3 - 6) 1993 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1 (0 - 1) 1994 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4 (3 - 7) 1995 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5 (3 - 7) 1996 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5 (3 - 7) 1997 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5 (3 - 7) 1998 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5 (3 - 7) 1999 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5 (3 - 7) 2000 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5 (3 - 7) 2001 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5 (3 - 7) 2002 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5 (4 - 7) 2003 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6 (4 - 7) 2004 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7 (5 - 9) 2007 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6 (4 - 8) 2005 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7 (5 - 9) 2006 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7 (5 - 10) 2008 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
8 (6 - 10) 2009 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
8 (6 - 11) 2010 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
9 (6 - 12) 2011 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
9 (6 - 13) 2012 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
10 (7 - 14) 2013 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
10 (7 - 14) 2014 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
10 (7 - 14) 2015 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
10 (7 - 15) 2016 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
11 (7 - 15) 2017 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
11 (8 - 16) 2018 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
12 (8 - 17) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
28 (21 - 36) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2020)
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Technical notes

Coverage of 3-dose hepatitis B vaccine

Infants
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Value (%) Year Type Source
98 2019 Survey/reported WHO/UNICEF
91 2020 Survey/reported WHO/UNICEF
96 2020 Survey/reported Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey 2019-20 Final Report
88 2021 Survey/reported WHO/UNICEF
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Proportion of persons living with HBV diagnosed

National
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Value (%) Year Type Source
85 2021 Survey/reported Communication with Rwanda Biomedical Center

Number of needles/syringes per PWID per year

People who inject drugs (PWID)
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Value Year Type Source
0 (0 - 0) 2016 Survey/reported Harm Reduction International, 2016
Technical notes

Percent of PWID accessing OST

People who inject drugs (PWID)
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Value (%) Year Type Source
0 2016 Survey/reported Harm Reduction International, 2016
HBV National Action Plan
HBV elimination goal
HBV mother to child transmission elimination goal
Year of HBV elimination goal
2030
National prevalence survey within the last 5 years
Adopted
Estimates of economic burden
Adopted
System for monitoring testing and treatment
Adopted
HepB birth dose policy
Yes
Year of birth dose introduction
2016
Recommendations for HBV testing of pregnant women
Adopted
Eligible for HBV generic medicines
Licensed point-of-care PCR testing to detect HBV
Not Adopted
HBV testing policy
Universal
No patient co-pays for HBsAg testing
Adopted
National treatment guidelines exist
Adopted
Simplified care: Simplified treatment and monitoring algorithm for primary care providers
Adopted
Simplified care: No treatment co-pays
Adopted
Adult HBV vaccination policy for high-risk populations
Adopted
Public budget line for testing and treatment
Adopted
HCV National Action Plan
HCV elimination goal
Year of HCV elimination goal
2024
National prevalence survey within the last 5 years
Adopted
Estimates of economic burden
Adopted
System for monitoring testing and treatment
Adopted
Recommendations for HCV testing of pregnant women
Adopted
Registration of originator HCV DAAs
Adopted
Eligible for HCV generic medicines
Registration of generic HCV DAAs
Adopted
Licensed point-of-care PCR testing to detect HCV
Not Adopted
HCV testing policy
Universal
No patient co-pays for anti-HCV testing
Adopted
National treatment guidelines exist
Adopted
Simplified care: Less than 2 clinic visits during treatment
Adopted
Simplified care: Non-specialists can prescribe treatment
Adopted
Simplified care: No treatment co-pays
Adopted
At least one needle-syringe exchange program (NSP) operational
No
At least one opioid substitution therapy (OST) program operational
No
NSP in at least one prison
No
OST in at least one prison
No
% of substance use disorder facilities offering hepatitis testing
Most (61-100%)
Public budget line for testing and treatment

Hepatitis C

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Prevalence of chronic HCV (RNA+/cAg)

National
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Value (%) Year Type Source
0.8 2019 Survey/reported Rwanda Population-based HIV Impact Assessment
1.8 (1.47 - 2.23) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.79 (1.46 - 2.21) 2018 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.79 (1.45 - 2.21) 2017 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.78 (1.44 - 2.21) 2016 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.77 (1.44 - 2.21) 2015 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.77 (1.44 - 2.21) 2014 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.78 (1.44 - 2.22) 2013 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.79 (1.44 - 2.22) 2012 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.8 (1.45 - 2.23) 2011 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.81 (1.46 - 2.26) 2010 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.83 (1.47 - 2.28) 2009 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.85 (1.48 - 2.30) 2008 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.87 (1.50 - 2.33) 2007 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.89 (1.52 - 2.35) 2006 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.92 (1.54 - 2.38) 2005 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.94 (1.56 - 2.40) 2004 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.98 (1.60 - 2.45) 2003 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.01 (1.63 - 2.49) 2002 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.05 (1.65 - 2.54) 2001 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.07 (1.67 - 2.56) 2000 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.09 (1.69 - 2.59) 1999 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.11 (1.70 - 2.62) 1998 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.13 (1.72 - 2.64) 1997 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.15 (1.73 - 2.68) 1996 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.17 (1.75 - 2.69) 1995 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.21 (1.79 - 2.75) 1994 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.23 (1.81 - 2.76) 1993 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.21 (1.78 - 2.74) 1992 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.2 (1.77 - 2.73) 1991 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
2.2 (1.77 - 2.74) 1990 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1.72 (1.39 - 2.13) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2020)
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People living with HIV (PLHIV)
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Value (%) Year Type Source
1.5 2019 Survey/reported Rwanda Population-based HIV Impact Assessment
Women of childbearing age (15–49 years)
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Value (%) Year Type Source
1.46 (1.12 - 1.94) 2019 Modelled Dugan et al., 2021
Technical notes

Prevalence of anti-HCV

10-64 year olds
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Value (%) Year Type Source
1.1 2019 Survey/reported Rwanda Population-based HIV Impact Assessment
15-64 year olds
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Value (%) Year Type Source
1.2 (0.80 - 1.60) 2019 Survey/reported Rwanda Population-based HIV Impact Assessment
National
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Value (%) Year Type Source
3.1 (0.30 - 9) 2014 Modelled Riou et al, 2015
3.1 (0.30 - 12) 2017 Modelled Sonderup et al, 2017
8.86 (8.70 - 9.02) 2017 Survey/reported Umutesi J et al, 2019
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People living with HIV (PLHIV)
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Value (%) Year Type Source
4.6 (4.50 - 4.70) 2016 Survey/reported Umutesi J et al, 2017
2.6 (1.30 - 3.90) 2019 Survey/reported Rwanda Population-based HIV Impact Assessment
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Technical notes

Number of people living with chronic HCV (RNA+/cAg)

National
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Value Year Type Source
155,395 (124,947 - 193,628) 1990 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
160,085 (128,673 - 198,436) 1991 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
146,951 (118,675 - 182,375) 1992 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
121,154 (98,391 - 150,526) 1993 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
115,642 (93,707 - 144,138) 1994 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
127,980 (103,346 - 158,935) 1995 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
147,387 (119,168 - 183,656) 1996 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
159,267 (128,893 - 197,604) 1997 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
161,235 (130,530 - 199,761) 1998 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
162,331 (131,406 - 200,897) 1999 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
164,289 (132,478 - 204,146) 2000 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
166,227 (134,212 - 206,635) 2001 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
167,541 (135,997 - 207,682) 2002 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
168,487 (136,246 - 208,976) 2003 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
169,269 (136,273 - 209,348) 2004 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
170,708 (137,368 - 211,434) 2005 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
172,883 (138,960 - 214,771) 2006 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
174,823 (140,567 - 217,915) 2007 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
176,591 (141,256 - 219,812) 2008 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
178,974 (143,317 - 222,801) 2009 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
181,997 (145,994 - 226,285) 2010 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
185,324 (148,658 - 229,804) 2011 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
188,761 (151,538 - 234,618) 2012 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
191,704 (154,770 - 238,221) 2013 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
194,408 (158,059 - 241,916) 2014 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
198,454 (160,761 - 247,234) 2015 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
203,652 (165,091 - 252,353) 2016 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
208,813 (168,899 - 257,999) 2017 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
214,078 (173,483 - 263,642) 2018 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
219,673 (178,368 - 272,698) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
218,025 (176,747 - 270,799) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2020)
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Women of childbearing age (15–49 years)
Download
Value Year Type Source
46,800 (36,000 - 62,000) 2019 Modelled Dugan et al., 2021

HCV-related death rate

National
Download
Value (Deaths per 100,000) Year Type Source
1.11 2019 Survey/reported Rwanda Biomedical Center (RBC) MCCOD Database
9.7 (6.91 - 13.50) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2020)
14.2 (10.17 - 18.31) 1990 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
14.34 (10.24 - 18.50) 1991 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
14.72 (10.49 - 18.97) 1992 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
15.45 (11.07 - 19.89) 1993 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
15.49 (11.15 - 19.78) 1994 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
14.74 (10.51 - 18.93) 1995 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
14.16 (9.96 - 18.31) 1996 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
13.66 (9.70 - 17.73) 1997 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
13.28 (9.64 - 17.27) 1998 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
11.73 (8.65 - 15.16) 2000 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
12.54 (9.07 - 16.33) 1999 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
10.99 (8.22 - 13.86) 2001 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
10.6 (8.05 - 13.30) 2002 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
10.27 (7.89 - 12.74) 2003 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
10 (7.81 - 12.44) 2004 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
9.21 (7.20 - 11.60) 2006 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
9.64 (7.59 - 12.03) 2005 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
8.91 (6.94 - 11.39) 2007 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
8.68 (6.68 - 11.15) 2008 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
8.46 (6.51 - 11.12) 2009 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
8.37 (6.42 - 11) 2010 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
8.41 (6.37 - 11.15) 2011 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
8.57 (6.47 - 11.44) 2012 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
8.95 (6.53 - 12.18) 2014 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
9.12 (6.52 - 12.43) 2015 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
8.72 (6.47 - 11.72) 2013 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
9.22 (6.61 - 12.59) 2016 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
9.39 (6.68 - 12.89) 2017 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
9.57 (6.83 - 13.27) 2018 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
9.7 (6.91 - 13.51) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
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HCV-related deaths

National
Download
Value Year Type Source
900 2016 Modelled WHO
144 2019 Survey/reported Rwanda Biomedical Center (RBC) MCCOD Database
1,231 (877 - 1,714) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1,231 (877 - 1,714) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2020)
1,187 (848 - 1,647) 2018 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1,141 (811 - 1,566) 2017 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1,095 (785 - 1,495) 2016 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1,057 (756 - 1,441) 2015 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1,014 (740 - 1,381) 2014 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
971 (720 - 1,305) 2013 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
933 (704 - 1,245) 2012 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
891 (675 - 1,181) 2011 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
864 (662 - 1,135) 2010 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
849 (654 - 1,117) 2009 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
850 (654 - 1,092) 2008 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
853 (664 - 1,090) 2007 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
860 (673 - 1,084) 2006 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
877 (690 - 1,095) 2005 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
888 (694 - 1,105) 2004 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
892 (685 - 1,106) 2003 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
898 (682 - 1,126) 2002 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
909 (680 - 1,146) 2001 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
948 (699 - 1,225) 2000 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
992 (717 - 1,291) 1999 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1,033 (750 - 1,344) 1998 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1,040 (738 - 1,350) 1997 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
988 (695 - 1,277) 1996 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
884 (630 - 1,135) 1995 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
825 (594 - 1,053) 1994 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
853 (612 - 1,099) 1993 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
995 (710 - 1,283) 1992 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1,061 (758 - 1,368) 1991 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1,018 (729 - 1,313) 1990 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
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Percent of liver cancer deaths attributable to HCV

National
Download
Value (%) Year Type Source
3 (2 - 5) 1990 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3 (2 - 5) 1991 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3 (2 - 5) 1992 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
1 (0 - 1) 1994 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3 (2 - 5) 1993 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3 (2 - 5) 1995 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3 (2 - 5) 1996 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3 (2 - 5) 1998 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3 (2 - 5) 1997 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3 (2 - 5) 1999 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3 (2 - 4) 2001 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3 (2 - 5) 2000 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3 (2 - 5) 2003 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
3 (2 - 5) 2002 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4 (2 - 5) 2004 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4 (3 - 5) 2005 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
4 (3 - 6) 2006 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5 (3 - 6) 2007 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5 (3 - 7) 2008 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
5 (4 - 7) 2009 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6 (4 - 8) 2010 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6 (4 - 8) 2011 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
6 (4 - 9) 2012 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7 (5 - 10) 2014 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
7 (5 - 10) 2013 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
8 (5 - 10) 2015 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
8 (5 - 11) 2017 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
8 (5 - 11) 2016 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
8 (6 - 12) 2018 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
9 (6 - 12) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2022)
21 (14 - 28) 2019 Modelled IHME, GBD 2019 (accessed 2020)
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Number of persons treated for HCV

National
Download
Value Year Type Source
1,265 2017 Survey/reported Communication with Rwanda Biomedical Center
6,573 2018 Survey/reported Communication with Rwanda Biomedical Center
9,184 2019 Survey/reported Communication with Rwanda Biomedical Center
16,891 2020 Survey/reported Communication with Rwanda Biomedical Center
17,429 2021 Survey/reported Communication with Rwanda Biomedical Center
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Cumulative number of persons treated for HCV

National
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Value Year Type Source
300 2015 Survey/reported WHO, 2021
1,000 2016 Survey/reported WHO, 2021
13,800 2018 Survey/reported WHO, 2021
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National (2015-2021)
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Value Year Type Source
54,518 2021 Survey/reported Communication with Rwanda Biomedical Center

Number of needles/syringes per PWID per year

People who inject drugs (PWID)
Download
Value Year Type Source
0 (0 - 0) 2016 Survey/reported Harm Reduction International, 2016
Technical notes

Percent of PWID accessing OST

People who inject drugs (PWID)
Download
Value (%) Year Type Source
0 2016 Survey/reported Harm Reduction International, 2016

Price of HCV cure (Average price in public sector for 3 months of DAAs)

National
Download
Value (US $) Year Type Source
510 2019 Survey/reported WHO, 2021

Price of HCV cure (Cheapest price in public sector for 3 months of DAAs)

National
Download
Value (US $) Year Type Source
60 2019 Survey/reported WHO, 2021
HBV National Action Plan
HBV elimination goal
HBV mother to child transmission elimination goal
Year of HBV elimination goal
2030
National prevalence survey within the last 5 years
Adopted
Estimates of economic burden
Adopted
System for monitoring testing and treatment
Adopted
HepB birth dose policy
Yes
Year of birth dose introduction
2016
Recommendations for HBV testing of pregnant women
Adopted
Eligible for HBV generic medicines
Licensed point-of-care PCR testing to detect HBV
Not Adopted
HBV testing policy
Universal
No patient co-pays for HBsAg testing
Adopted
National treatment guidelines exist
Adopted
Simplified care: Simplified treatment and monitoring algorithm for primary care providers
Adopted
Simplified care: No treatment co-pays
Adopted
Adult HBV vaccination policy for high-risk populations
Adopted
Public budget line for testing and treatment
Adopted
HCV National Action Plan
HCV elimination goal
Year of HCV elimination goal
2024
National prevalence survey within the last 5 years
Adopted
Estimates of economic burden
Adopted
System for monitoring testing and treatment
Adopted
Recommendations for HCV testing of pregnant women
Adopted
Registration of originator HCV DAAs
Adopted
Eligible for HCV generic medicines
Registration of generic HCV DAAs
Adopted
Licensed point-of-care PCR testing to detect HCV
Not Adopted
HCV testing policy
Universal
No patient co-pays for anti-HCV testing
Adopted
National treatment guidelines exist
Adopted
Simplified care: Less than 2 clinic visits during treatment
Adopted
Simplified care: Non-specialists can prescribe treatment
Adopted
Simplified care: No treatment co-pays
Adopted
At least one needle-syringe exchange program (NSP) operational
No
At least one opioid substitution therapy (OST) program operational
No
NSP in at least one prison
No
OST in at least one prison
No
% of substance use disorder facilities offering hepatitis testing
Most (61-100%)
Public budget line for testing and treatment

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